Potencial Evocados
17 Oct

Potencial Evocados

Centro de Rehabilitación Integral Física Irani -CERIF.

Potencial evocado

Potencial evocado se trata de una exploración neurofisiológica que evalúa la función del sistema sensorial acústico, visual, somatosensorial y sus vías por medio de respuestas provocadas frente a un estímulo conocido y normalizado. Se estudia la respuesta del sistema nervioso central a los estímulos sensoriales, analizando las vías nerviosas que desde la periferia aportan la información hacia el cerebro.

Suelen ser pruebas no invasivas. El potencial evocado designa la modificación del potencial eléctrico producido por el sistema nervioso en respuesta a una estimulación externa, especialmente sensorial (un sonido, una imagen, etc..), pero también a un evento interno como una actividad cognitiva ( atención , la preparación del motor , etc.) y se guarda a través de técnicas como la electroencefalografía (EEG) o la electromiografía (EMG). Cuando un tren de estímulos sensoriales de cualquier tipo llega al cerebro, provoca secuencias características de ondas en el trazado electroencefalográfico (EEG), que denominamos potenciales evocados. Son diferentes para cada modalidad sensorial y su variabilidad también depende de la intensidad del estímulo. Característicamente presentan una relación estable en el tiempo respecto al estímulo.

Gracias a los potenciales evocados se pueden estudiar diversos constructos. Por ejemplo, se ha correlacionado negativamente con el nivel de inteligencia (las personas con un cociente de inteligencia alto suelen presentar PE de latencia más corta).

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